The Induction motor is widely used and most accepted in industrial applications. This motor is also used for domestic and commercial applications. The three-phase induction motors are almost 70% of the machines used in industries. The induction motor has many advantages and a few disadvantages.
Advantages of an Induction Motor (IM)
1) The working of an induction motor is straightforward. It can operate in any environmental condition, and the construction of an induction motor is robust and sturdy.
2) It is very cheap compared to the other motors.
3) It is a highly efficient motor; the efficiency of IM varies from 85 to 95%.
4) The brushes are not used in an induction motor. So, there are no sparks in the motor, and it can be used in a polluted and hazardous environment.
6) Three-phase induction motor is a self-starting motor. So, any special starting arrangement or extra starting motor is not required. However, single-phase induction motors do not have self-starting torque, and it uses some auxiliaries to rotate.
7) In this motor, only one AC source requires to operate. It does not require DC excitation like a synchronous motor.
8) The speed variation from no-load to rated load is significantly less.
Disadvantages of Induction Motor
1) The motor’s power factor is deficient during the light load condition.
2) The three-phase induction motor is a constant speed motor. The change in speed of the motor is very low during different loading conditions. So, the speed control of IM is difficult.
3) It operates at a very low power factor during light load conditions. Because of this, it draws a higher current. Which results in higher copper loss and less efficiency.
4) Single-phase induction motor is not self-starting. It requires some auxiliary for stating.
5) The motor cannot use in such applications where high starting torque is necessary, like traction and lifting weight.
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