Applications of DC Motor

Applications of DC Motor

The DC motors are classified into three types;

We have discussed these motors in detail in previous articles. In this article, we will discuss the applications of various types of DC motors.

Each motor has its advantage, and according to that, it is suited for specific applications.

Application of DC Series Motor

The DC series motor produces high starting torque. And this motor operates at various speeds. The speed of the DC series motor is inversely proportional to torque.

Hence, the DC series motor is suitable for the application in which high starting torque is required.

DC series motor widely used in the below listed applications.

  • Electric traction
  • Cranes
  • Rapid transits system
  • Conveyers
  • Diesel-electric locomotive
  • Elevators
  • Hoists
  • Trolly cars

Applications of DC Shunt Motor

The speed and flux produced in the DC shunt motor are approximately constant with varying load conditions. When load changes from no-load to full-load, there is a slight difference in speed. So, the DC shunt motor is a constant speed motor.

The torque of a motor is proportional to the armature current. This motor has 30 to 40 % more starting torque than rated torque.

According to these characteristics, the DC shunt motor is used in the following applications.

  • It is used in various machine tools like lathe machines, drilling machines, milling machines, etc.
  • This motor is suitable for belt-driven applications.
  • Printing machinery
  • Paper machinery
  • Fans
  • Centrifugal and reciprocating pumps
  • Blowers

However, the DC shunt motor characteristics are nearly the same as the characteristics of induction motors. Therefore, an induction motor is more preferred instead of a DC shunt motor in above listed applications.

The reason behind that is that an induction motor’s cost is less than a DC shunt motor. And also, the mechanical design of the induction motor is more robust. The induction motor is an AC motor. Hence, it does not require additional arrangements.

Application of Compound DC Motor

The compound DC motor uses series and shunt field windings. Hence, the characteristic of the compound DC motor lies in between the series and shunt motor.

Shunt field winding provides constant speed, and series field winding offers high starting torque. Hence, it is suitable for both types of applications.

There are two types of compound DC motors; cumulative compound and differential compound.

The differential compound motor is rarely used. Because, in motor, the speed increases with increase in load. Hence, it results in the unstable operation of a motor. So, this motor is not used for any applications.

Cumulative compound motors are used in the following applications;

  • Elevators
  • Rolling mills
  • Shearing machines
  • Planers
  • Air compressor
  • Punches
  • Reciprocating machines

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