Comparison of Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbine in Hydroelectric Power Plant

Comparison of Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbine of Hydroelectric Power Plant

There are two types of turbines used in hydroelectric power plants;

  • Impulse turbine
  • Reaction turbine

In this article, we will compare both types of turbines;

Impulse Turbine

Reaction Turbine

Impulse turbines work on the principle of impulse. Hence, it follows the impulse-momentum equation. A reaction turbine works on the principle of impulse and reaction. Hence, it follows the law of angular momentum.
In the nozzle, all the head is first converted into kinetic energy. Only part of the available head is converted into kinetic energy in guide vanes.
Water from nozzles comes out in form of a jet and strikes the buckets of a runner. Water is guided by the guide vanes to flow over the moving blades.
The flow of water over the runner is at constant atmospheric pressure. The flow of water over the runner is under pressure that gradually decreases from inlet to outlet.
The runner of the turbine need not run full and the water may be admitted over the full or apart of a periphery of a runner. The runner needs to run full of water since under pressure all the time. Water is admitted over the circumference of the runner.
The casing is not compulsory. But it is provided to collect the water discharged from the turbine and directs it to the tail race. It also avoids the splashing of water. The casing is essential since water flows from inlet to outlet under pressure.
The work is done due to a change in the kinetic energy of the jet. Almost work is done due to a change in pressure head and very small work is done due to a change in kinetic energy.
It is possible to regulate the flow of water without loss. It is not possible to regulate the flow of water without loss.
Suitable for high heads. Suitable for low and medium heads.
Head loss due to installation of turbine above tail race cannot be recovered. Head loss due to installation above the tail race can be recovered by using a draft tube.

 47 total views,  1 views today

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.