Important Terms related to Power System

Important Terms related to Power System

In this article, we will discuss Important Terms related to Power System.

Connected Load

Connected load is defined as the sum of continuous ratings of all the equipment connected with the supply system. The connected load of the power system network is varied concerning time.

Maximum Demand

Maximum demand is defined as the greatest demand of load on the power station during a given period.

The load on the power station is changing with respect to the time. The maximum of all the demands that have occurred during a given period is known as the maximum demand of that system.

Average Demand

The average demand for the system or network is defined as the average of loads occurring on the power station in a given period (day or month or year). It is also known as the average load.

 Load Factor

The load factor is defined as the ratio of the average load to the maximum demand during a given period.

    \[ Load \, Factor = \frac{Average \, Load}{Maximum \, Load} \]

Diversity Factor

The diversity factor is defined as the ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands of loads to the maximum demand of the entire group of the load for a given time.

    \[ Diversity \, Factor = \frac{ sum \, of \, individual \, maximum \, demand \, of \, loads}{maximum \, demand \, of \, the \, entire \, group \, of \, load \, at \, a \, given \, time} \]

The value of diversity factor is always greater than unity.

Demand Factor

The demand factor is the ratio of maximum demand on the power station to its connected load. The equation of the demand factor is as below.

    \[ Demand \, Factor = \frac{maximum \, demand \, on \, the \, system}{total \, connected \, load \, on \, the \, system} \]

The value of total load is always greater than the maximum demand. And hence, the value of the demand factor is usually less than one.

Utilization Factor

Usually, the plant which is installed is of higher capacity/rating than the maximum demand on the plant. The ration of the maximum demand to the installed capacity is called the utilization factor of the plant. Therefore,

    \[ Utilization \, Factor = \frac{Maximum \, demand \, on \, plant \, in \, kW}{Installed \, capacity \, of \, plant \, in \, kW} \]

Plant Capacity Factor

Plant Capacity Factor is defined as the ratio of actual energy generated in a given period to the maximum energy that could be generated during the same period. Therefore,

    \[ Plant \, Capacity \, Factor = \frac{Actual \, energy \, produced}{Maximum \, energy \, that \, could \, have \, been \, produced} \]

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