Overview of Electrical Power System Network

Overview of Electrical Power System Network

What is the Power System? 

The power system is a network of millions of electrical components working in synchronism. The current, voltage, power and frequency are the main parameters of the power system. In this article, we will discuss an overview of the power system.

In normal conditions, all parameters remain in the rated value. In abnormal conditions or faulty conditions, these parameters are cross their limits of rated value.

The power system divides into three parts; power generation, power transmission, and power distribution.

One more part you can add is protection and switchgear.

Power Generation

The electricity or electric power generates in power plants. The electrical power plants convert any other form of energy into electrical energy.

The other source of energy may be chemical energy, solar energy, wind energy, nuclear energy. According to the availability of sources, different types of power plants use in the network.

The power plants divide into renewable power plants and non-renewable power plants.

Renewable power plants use a source of energy like solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal. Non-renewable power plants use a source of energy like coal, nuclear, natural gas, diesel.

The thermal power plant generates most of the electrical energy. But we have to find other alternative fuel sources for the future. These generating stations are placed at a far distance from the load or city. The transmission network uses to transmit power over a significant distance.

Power Transmission

Power plants place at a far distance from the city area or last consumer. The transmission system links the generating system and the distribution system.

It has the most significant area compared to power generation and power distribution systems, and the transmission network is most prone to fault.

There are more chances of a fault occurring in the transmission line. For example, the large capacity of the transmission line carries a large amount of load.

If this transmission line fails due to any conditions, a tremendous load will disconnect from the system.

So, the protection of a transmission line is an essential task.

Three types of transmission lines are available according to the length of the line; short transmission line, medium transmission line and long transmission line.

Less than 60 km of the line is considered a short transmission line. 60 km to 250 km line is regarded as a medium transmission line, and more than 250 km line is deemed a long transmission line.

The high voltage transmission lines use to reduce copper loss and the size of the conductor. Generally, the voltage level of the AC transmission line is 230 kV, 500 kV, 765 kV and for DC transmission lines and 100 kV to 1500 kV.

Power Distribution

The voltage level of the distribution network is less than 132 kV. The transmission line of 11 kV, 33 kV, 66 kV, and 132 kV consider in the distribution system.

These lines carry less power compared to the lines of transmission networks. For example, the power system network supplies electrical power to the residential, commercial and industrial load.

It supplies 3 phase power for industrial load, and the voltage level is 440 V. It supplies single-phase power for commercial and residential load, and the voltage level is 230 V.

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