The kinetic energy of water utilizes for hydropower plants. A life of hydropower plants is higher compared to the thermal and nuclear plant. But the installation cost and time are higher. This type of generating stations use to supply electricity where a continuous source of water is available. However, this type of plants cannot install anywhere.
Following factors must be consider while selecting the site of the hydro generating station.
- The quantity of water available
- Storage of water
- Head of water
- The distance of power station site from load centers
- Accessibility of the site
- Water pollution
- Geological investigation
- Environmental effect
1) The quantity of water available
On the basis of measurements of stream flow, the quantity of water is estimated. In this estimation, also consider the previous record of rainfall, the maximum and minimum quantity of water available throughout the year and losses due to evaporation and percolation. Therefore, the net volume of water available for power generation can be determined.
2) Storage of water
The storage capacity of water can be calculate from the mass curve. During the year, wide variation in rainfall occurs. Hence, It makes necessary to store water for continuous generation of power throughout the year.
3) Head of water
The water head depends on the topology of the area. The head of water has a considerable effect on the cost and economy of power generation. Low falls on the unregulated flow of water are uneconomical for power generation. So, it is necessary to choose a site with a high head of water.
4) The distance of power station site from load centers
If the load center is far from the power station, it will increase the cost of the transmission line. The losses occur in the transmission line increase the cost. Therefore, the site for hydropower plant choose near the load center.
5) Accessibility of the site
The site is easily accessible by rail and by road. So, it is easy for the transportation.
6) Water pollution
Polluted water may damage the blade of the turbine by corrosion. Hence, this led to the unreliable operation of the plant. Therefore, it is necessary that the quality of water is good.
7) Geological investigation
It is necessary to choose a place which can withstand the water thrust and other stress. The construction of the plant is strong and stable. This construction can withstand natural calamities like thunderstorm, earthquake, etc.
8) Environmental effect
The place chooses that is free from hazards and chemical effects.
So, these are the factors which must be consider while selecting the site of hydropower plant.
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